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Delicious Plum

ritau
06月02日
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).

Mature plum fruit may have a dusty-white waxy coating that gives them a glaucous appearance. This is an epicuticular wax coating and is known as "wax bloom". Dried plum fruits are called "dried plums" or prunes, although, in many countries (Li hing mui for instance), prunes are a distinct type of dried plum having a wrinkled appearance.

Plums may have been one of the first fruits domesticated by humans. Three of the most abundant cultivars are not found in the wild, only around human settlements: Prunus domestica has been traced to East European and Caucasian mountains, while Prunus salicina and Prunus simonii originated in Asia. Plum remains have been found in Neolithic age archaeological sites along with olives, grapes and figs. According to Ken Albala, plums originated in Iran.

Plums are a diverse group of species. The commercially important plum trees are medium-sized, usually pruned to 5–6 metres height. The tree is of medium hardiness.Without pruning, the trees can reach 12 metres in height and spread across 10 metres. They blossom in different months in different parts of the world; for example, in about January in Taiwan and early April in the United Kingdom.

Fruits are usually of medium size, between 2 and 7 centimetres in diameter, globose to oval. The flesh is firm and juicy. The fruit's peel is smooth, with a natural waxy surface that adheres to the flesh. The plum is a drupe, meaning its fleshy fruit surrounds a single hard seed.

Plum cultivars include:

*Damson (purple or black skin, green flesh, clingstone, astringent)
*Greengage (firm, green flesh and skin even when ripe)
*Mirabelle (dark yellow, predominantly grown in northeast France)
*Satsuma plum (firm red flesh with a red skin)
*Victoria (yellow flesh with a red or mottled skin)
*Yellowgage or golden plum (similar to greengage, but yellow)

Raw plums are 87% water, 11% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and less than 1% fat. In a 100 gram amount, raw plums supply 46 calories and are a moderate source only of vitamin C (12% Daily Value), with no other nutrients in significant content.
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