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Miss Chen
17小时前
Miss Chen
盆栽花木,花盆质料性质和容积的大小,对花木生长影响很大,因此合理选用花盆甚为重要。理想的花盆应具有:质料轻,搬运方便;经久耐用,不易破碎;色彩、造型、厚薄、大小能适用花木生长的需要,且要有多种规格型号;价格低廉等条件。现在的花盆按制作材料的不同,可分为以下几种:
1、素烧瓦盆。瓦盆不仅经济实用,而且因盆壁上有许多细微孔隙,透气渗水性能都很理想,这对盆土中的肥料分解,根系的呼吸和生长都有好处。缺点是色彩单调,造型不美,表面粗糙,规格不多和易破碎等。通常新盆比日盆好。新盆不仅透水耐涝,能够缓和肥效,而且吸热快,散热也快,昼夜温差大,这样有利于土壤中有机肥料的分解。青色的和红色的瓦盆都一样使用,但要注意瓦盆的质量。一般土坯细腻,火候合适,声音清脆,表面略有光泽的较好,这种瓦盆坚固耐用。质量差的瓦盆,外形不正,火候不够,色泽不匀,声音发闷,经不住水肥侵蚀,很快就会起皮酥裂。盆孔向内凸和盆底不平的,容易造成窝水,对养花不利。
2、紫砂盆、宜兴紫砂陶盆或其他陶盆。色彩、造型精致美观,又有微弱的通气渗水性能,用来栽培花木,也较理想,尤其栽培兰花或树桩盆景,能大大提高它们的观赏效果。它的种类规格多,有方形、圆形、矩形、椭圆形、多边形、盘形、舟形和签筒形等。最大口径达30厘米,最小口径只有3厘米,浅的不满3.3厘米,深的超过33厘米。盆底下有脚,便于排水,还增添了盆体的空间感。盆壁上有各种图案、绘画和书法,增添了美感。盆色丰富,有米黄、赭红、灰紫和深浅不同等多种颜色。由于价格昂贵,且质量重、易破碎等原因,除栽名贵的茶花、杜鹃、兰花和树桩等花木外,一般多不用。选用时,盆的形状、大小、色泽等与培育的植株要协调Q通常赢干、双干一本多干的盆景,宜使用长方形或椭圆形盆,悬崖式宜选圆形或方形深筒盆。 花盆的名称、规格、型号,全国各地不统一。在使用花盆时,要考虑花卉种类、植株大小,选择深浅大小适当的花盆。大盆养小苗容易水涝,小盆养大苗容易摇倒和缺水。
3、塑料盆。质料轻巧,使用方便,不易破碎,经久耐用,盆壁内外光洁,不仅换盆时磕土容易,也易于洗涤和消毒。但不透气渗水,只适栽甚耐水湿的花木,如旱伞草、龟背竹、马蹄莲、广东万年青,或较喜湿的花木,如蕨类、吊兰、紫鸭跖草、冬珊瑚、夜丁香等。 目前市场上有一种塑料制的淘米洗菜的盆,形似脸盆,盆壁、盆底和四周满布细孔,有20~35厘米口径的多种规格,也可用来种花。由于盆壁多孔,易渗漏出泥水,但可在盆内壁衬一圈塑料纱网,可减少渗漏,仍可透气。如恐盆壁易被土壤重量挤压破裂,可用锯末代替土壤栽植花木,这样就成为理想的阳台养花的花盆。
4、瓷盆、釉盆用上釉的花盆栽植花木,盆外壁涂有色釉,不透气渗水,小易掌握盆土干湿情况,尤其在冬季休眠时,常因浇水过多,而使花木烂根死亡。因此,不适于栽植花木。由于瓷盆外表美观,外形多样,一般可作花木陈列的套盆用。盆景用盆通常为宜兴紫砂盆,其次是釉盆、瓷盆和石盆等。
5、木桶盆。在北方用来代替大缸栽种大型花木,它比大缸轻便,又不易破碎,但市场上没有现货供应,只有定做。适合制作木桶盆的木料以柏木、杉木为好,经久耐用,不怕水湿,不易腐烂。木桶盆的规格从50厘米口径开始,每加大5厘米为一型号,最大口径为100厘米。桶壁厚度不应小于2厘米,75厘米以上的大口径,桶壁厚度应加到3厘米左右,才能承受住土壤压力。桶底厚度为3厘米以上,底上应钻4―5个排水孔,孔径为3厘米左右。桶壁外应加2―3道铁箍和2个或4个铁提环。桶壁最好涂成绿色,铁箍、铁提环最好刷上金粉或银粉。用多大的花盆,应根据花木植株的高矮、冠幅的大小、根系的深浅来选用。小苗栽大盆,盆土水分不易渗干,使根系呼吸困难,易烂根死亡。大苗栽小盆,营养不足,盆土易干,影响根系发育,对生长不利。一般1―2年生小苗,苗高10厘米以下者,用口径7―9厘米的盆;3―4年生苗,苗高20厘米左右者,用口径14―16厘米的盆;5年生以上的大苗,苗高40厘米左右者,用口径20厘米以上的大盆。对于根系较深的花木,如牡丹、金银花等,就选用盆径与盆高比例为1:2以上的深盆。 播种或扦插繁殖时,为促使迅速发芽生根,要用浅盆。有专用的播种扦插盆,盆高仅6―7厘米,盆径35厘米左右,盆底有较多的排水孔。由于盆浅孔多,渗水快,盆土空气含量比深盆充足,有利发芽和生根。 此外,用油漆涂瓦盆以增加美观者,影响盆壁透气、渗水,很不利于花木生长。而用柳条、竹篾编织的盆篮透气、渗水好,可以用做花盆,还具有特色。
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Miss Chen
10月25日
Miss Chen
Homegrown fruit always beats market fruit for freshness and taste, but not everyone has the space to grow a fruit tree or a melon vine. For that reason, berries are the gateway fruit for many gardeners, and none are easier to grow in the home garden than the blackberry. As native North American fruiting shrubs that can typically be harvested from June to August, blackberries are primed to grow in your yard with little extra maintenance. All you need to grow summer blackberries for your pies, jams, and smoothies is a spot with full sun and a good supply of soil amendments such as compost or leaf mold. Blackberries are sold as dormant bare roots or as potted plants. They are best planted when the canes are dormant—generally in early spring. If you have the patience to grow blackberries from seed, plant them in the ground in the fall. Planted from seeds, blackberry canes generally will begin producing meaningful quantities of fruit in their second full year of growth. Botanical Name Rubus Fruticosus Common Name Blackberry Plant Type Perennial Size 3–5 feet Sun Exposure Full sun Soil Type Rich, well-drained loam Soil pH Slightly acidic to neutral (5.5 to 7.0) Hardiness Zones 5–8 Native Area North America, especially the Pacific Northwest How to Plant Blackberries As members of the Rosaceae family, the cultivation of blackberries resembles that of rose bushes. Fortunately, blackberries are closer to wild roses in their ease of care than they are to a hybrid tea rose. Blackberries will tolerate many growing conditions, but the harvest of a struggling blackberry plant will be disappointing compared to the harvest of a pampered plant. Plenty of sunshine, regular irrigation, and rich loamy soil will give plants the energy and nutrients they need to yield sweet, jumbo blackberries. Plants should be spaced 5 to 6 feet apart; if planting in rows, space the rows 5 to 8 feet apart. If necessary, amend the soil before planting so it is rich, well-drained, and slightly acidic. Blackberries should be planted relatively shallow—about 1 inch deeper than they were growing in the nursery pot. Trailing varieties of blackberries should have a trellis or other form of support to secure the canes.
Light Sites with full sun are best for productive blackberry bushes. Some afternoon shade is tolerated, especially in areas with hot summers. Soil Careful site selection will ensure a long life for your blackberries, which usually live for about a decade with proper care. The ideal soil is slightly acidic with good drainage; these plants do not do well in clay soil. An elevated site or raised beds will not only help drainage but will also prevent late spring frosts from damaging flower buds. Remove all weeds that might draw nutrients or water away from your blackberries, as their shallow roots are susceptible to this competition. Keep a good layer of mulch over the root zone at all times. This will feed the plants, conserve water moisture, and keep weeds down. Water Blackberries need moderate amounts of water, around 1 inch per week provided either by rainfall or from ground-level irrigation. Blackberries do not fare well in wet soils. Temperature and Humidity Blackberries require a period of cold dormancy to germinate, but because of their shallow root systems, they don't do well in areas where temperatures go below zero degrees routinely. Zones 5 to 8 provide the best environment for blackberries. Cold winter temperatures combined with wet spring soils may lead to plant death. The reverse environment of hot, dry winds is also unfavorable for blackberry growing and may result in stunted, seedy fruits. Fertilizer Fertilize your blackberries in the spring when plants are emerging from dormancy, using a balanced 10-10-10 formula. Fertilize plants again in the fall with an application of manure and compost, which will also suppress weeds and improve soil tilth. Blackberry Varieties Blackberries are usually categorized according to their growth habit: Erect thorny blackberries grow upright and don't require support for the canes. They have very sharp spines on the canes—sharp enough to tear clothing. Erect thornless blackberries are similar, but have canes without the prickly thorns. They, too, require no trellis supports. Trailing thornless blackberries have sprawling canes that require a trellis or system of wires to hold them up above the ground. 'Shawnee' is resistant to cold, and has self-supporting thorny canes. 'Natchez' is thornless and erect, and will form a hedgerow as it spreads by suckers. Semi-erect thornless varieties like 'Chester' and 'Triple Crown' grow as a clump, and benefit from a trellis. Varieties like 'Prime-Ark Traveler' produce fruit on new and old canes throughout the season. Blackberries vs. Raspberries Both blackberries and raspberries belong to the Rubus genus. Blackberry and raspberry plants look very similar—both featuring thorny canes and compound leaves with toothed edges in groups of three or five. One key difference between the fruits of blackberries and raspberries is the way the fruits are formed. The tiny globes of the fruits, called drupelets, are attached to a white core in blackberries. Raspberries, including black raspberries, form drupelets with a hollow core. Harvesting Because they are highly perishable, it's important to follow the development of your ripening blackberries carefully. Immature blackberries start out green, then transition to red before maturing to a deep, glossy black. Blackberries do not continue to ripen after harvest, so pick the berries only after they have turned completely black. Berries last about seven days in the refrigerator after harvest. Pruning Blackberry roots are perennial but the canes are biennial. This means that second-year canes that have produced their fruit need to be trimmed away after harvesting. For an established shrub, new canes that haven't yet fruited should be tip-pruned to about 3 feet in summer. This will cause the new canes to branch out, maximizing the fruit produced. Once these canes produce fruit, they should be removed to the ground immediately after the fruit harvest. In early spring before new growth has started, remove any canes damaged by winter, and thin out the remaining canes to the four or five strongest canes.
Propagating Blackberries It's easy to propagate blackberry plants from stem cuttings. Cut a 4-inch piece from the end of the stem in late spring when temperatures are mild and rainfall is plenty. Plant it in the soil, and keep it moist. Roots will form in two to four weeks. These newly started plants can be planted in the fall, or you can keep them in a sheltered location and plant them the following spring. Common Pests and Diseases Blackberries are prone to anthracnose, stem blight, and crown gall. Prevent disease by purchasing disease-free plant stock from reputable nurseries, and planting your blackberries away from areas with wild brambles, which may carry these diseases. Insect pests include stink bugs and raspberry crown borers. Keeping your plants healthy and vigorous will make them less attractive to insect attack. Blackberries are sometimes afflicted by viral diseases. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus and blackberry calico virus both cause bright yellow splotches to appear on leaves. Affected plants will need to be removed and destroyed. How to Grow Blackberries in Pots When growing blackberries in containers, choose a compact cultivar like Baby Cakes that does not need pruning. Choose large containers that hold at least five gallons of soil to prevent drying out.
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Miss Chen
10月25日
Miss Chen
植物生长发育所需的各种矿质元素,需要量很大,最主要的是氮、磷、钾。所以,氮、磷、钾称为肥料三要素。它们的作用是: 1、氮(N) 氮肥也称叶肥。它能使植株生长迅速,枝叶繁茂,叶色浓绿。幼苗期和观叶花卉,应施氮肥为主。一般多在春季至初夏施用。植株生长前期,即营养生长期,更不能缺氮。如在植株生长发育停止后(夏季以后),再继续施用氮肥,会使茎叶徒长,植株难以最后成熟,严重影响开花挂果。且茎叶柔弱,易遭病虫危害。所以,在植株进人生殖生长期(花芽分化期)前,应停止施用氮肥。人粪尿、豆饼、硫酸铵、尿素等都是氮肥。
2、磷(P) 磷肥也称果肥。它能促进花芽分化和孕蕾,使花朵色艳香浓,果大质好,还能促进植株生长健壮。在植株生长发育后期(生殖生长期)施用最为有效。因而开花前,挂住果后,可多施磷肥。植物具有在体内贮藏磷肥的能力,并能根据生长需要而调节使用,因此,可以1次施足在基肥中。植物对磷肥的吸收能力有一定限度,磷肥不会像氮肥那样因施用过量而引起肥害。禽粪、禽毛、骨粉、过磷酸钙、磷酸二氢钾、磷矿粉等都是磷肥。
3、钾(K) 钾肥也称根肥。它能使茎干、根系生长茁壮,不易倒伏,增强抗病虫害和耐寒能力。是植株发育前期不可欠缺的,在幼苗期、抽梢期和苗木移栽后,可多施钾肥。在植株发育后期,钾肥有助于光合作用的完成,对碳水化合物的产生具有重要的作用,尤其对可以大量储存碳水化合物的球根花卉,作用更为显著。所以,在植株生长全过程中,钾肥都是不可缺少的。长期放在室内的盆花,由于光照不足,而使光合作用减弱,可大量施用钾肥。钾肥也不会因施用过量而产生肥害。草木灰、氯化钾、硫酸钾等都是钾肥。
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Miss Chen
10月24日
Miss Chen
Named for its resemblance to the popular hardy garden flower black-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia spp.), the black-eyed Susan vine (Thunbergia alata) is instead a tender perennial climbing yet bushy vine that is normally grown as an annual. It is a great plant for containers and hanging baskets and is particularly beloved for its distinctive flowers in vivid orange, yellow, and other colors. The flowers have dark centers, like the other black-eyed Susans, and the vine blooms for many weeks in the summer and into fall. Black-eyed Susan vine is a diminutive vine that grows to a maximum of about 8 feet in temperate zones or when grown in containers, although it can grow to 20 feet in frost-free zones, where the plant is evergreen. The leaves are arrow- or heart-shaped and up to 3 inches long. This vine climbs by winding its way up support structures rather than clinging with tendrils. Also called clockvine, the black-eyed Susan vine is grown as an annual in USDA hardiness zones 3 to 9 but can be grown as a perennial in zones 10 and 11.
Botanical Name Thunbergia alata Common Name Black-Eyed Susan vine Plant Type Flowering vine, annual or perennial Mature Size 3 to 8 ft. tall, 3 to 6 ft. wide Sun Exposure Full sun to part shade Soil Type Fertile, well-drained Soil pH 6.5 to 7.5 Bloom Time Summer (as an annual) Flower Color Orange, white, yellow, red, pink Hardiness Zones 10 to 11 (USDA) Native Area East Africa Black-Eyed Susan Vine Care Black-eyed Susan vines are usually planted as annuals in containers or hanging baskets with mixed plantings, but they can also be planted in the ground to cover trellises, arbors, fences, and other structures. The plant works well to cascade down over retaining walls, and it can also serve as a ground cover. Aesthetically, it presents very well when combined with plants that have purple leaves or flowers. If propagating or growing from seed, it's best to provide vertical structure in the ground or pots, for the vines before they need them, preferably before planting, so you don't have to disrupt the young plants later. You can simply plant them near a fence (with a post or planks they can climb), stand up a cage structure, or erect a tripod, or a tall pole. Light Grow these plants in full sun to part shade. Some afternoon shade is beneficial, especially in warmer climates, as the hottest sun's rays may be damaging. Soil Plant a black-eyed Susan vine in soil that is rich, fertile, and well-drained with medium moisture-retention properties. It prefers a soil pH that is close to neutral. Water Water regularly and deeply to keep the soil moist but not wet. If the leaves begin to wilt, the soil is probably too dry and needs a bit more water. In containers, do not let the soil dry out completely. Temperature and Humidity The black-eyed Susan vine thrives in warm, humid climates, which explains why it is invasive in tropical areas. However, it will grow anywhere in its zone range, provided it gets enough water. It tends to flower best after the hottest days of the summer are over. Fertilizer Feed the plants (indoors or outdoors) every two to three weeks during their bloom season. Follow the package directions, but in many cases, it's best to use a half-strength solution of fertilizer designed to boost blooming. Black-Eyed Susan Vine Varieties Cultivars of Thunbergia alata have very similar foliage and overall habits and are mostly distinguished by flower color. 'Angel Wings': White flowers 'African Sunset': Dark red-purple flowers 'Arizona Dark Red': Deep orange-red flowers 'Blushing Susie': Apricot and rose flowers 'Canary Eyes': Yellow flowers 'Lemon A-Peel': Bright yellow flowers with a very dark center 'Orange Wonder': Bright orange flowers with no dark center 'Raspberry Smoothie': Pale lilac-pink flowers and grey-green foliage 'Superstar Orange': Extra-large orange flowers 'Susie' mix: Orange, yellow, and white flowers with or without contrasting centers Propagating Black-Eyed Susan Vines Propagating this vine from stem cuttings is easy and it's usually best done over the winter. Take a cutting several inches from a terminal end of a healthy plant. Remove the bottom leaves of the cutting. Place the cutting in a glass of water to root. Change the water in the glass every two or so days. When the roots thicken, plant it in a well-draining pot in potting soil. Grow the plant until spring and then transplant outdoors after the threat of frost has passed. How to Grow Black-Eyed Susan Vines From Seed This vine is easily started from seeds sown directly in the garden after the last expected frost date (when the soil is at least 60 degrees Fahrenheit). In colder climates, nursery transplants are normally used; or, you can start them indoors six to eight weeks before the last frost. Germination occurs about 10 to 14 days after sowing in warmer temperatures of 70 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit, and up to 20 days in cooler temperatures.
Potting and Repotting Black-Eyed Susan Vines Black-eyed Susan vines grown in large pots with vertical structures can make beautiful decorations outdoors as well as inside your home. You can set a pair flanking a front door or define the edges of a patio or outdoor sitting area. Indoors, a pot of climbing vine can brighten the corner of a sunroom or even a large, bright bathroom. Indoor vines can even flower in the winter, provided they get plenty of sun and the temperature doesn't drop below 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Feed container plants (indoors or outdoors) every two to three weeks during the blooming period. Overwintering Move potted vines indoors so the vines can even flower in the winter, provided they get plenty of sun and the temperature doesn't drop below 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Feed indoor wintering container plants every two to three weeks during the cold season's blooming period. Common Pests & Diseases This showy vine is free of most serious insect or disease problems when grown outdoors, but indoors the plants can have problems with scale, spider mites, and whiteflies. Typically, these can be managed with neem oil or horticultural soap.
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Miss Chen
10月24日
Miss Chen
养分平衡配方对于花卉植物更好地发挥遗传潜力是非常重要的,平衡配方中的每种成分在花卉植物新陈代谢过程中具有互相促进、相互制约的作用。一种或多种养分亏缺都会对植物的生长发育和花色鲜艳度产生不利影响。配方中的全营养元素对花卉植物有如下生理作用:
氮(N) -蛋白质的组成部分,促进合成氨基酸,称作“生命的元素”,缺氮时植株矮小、生长慢、叶黄、叶色变淡,枝条细弱,同时易落叶。 磷(P) -核酸、磷脂的组成部分,促进根系发育,缺磷幼芽和根系生长缓慢,分枝少、叶片小,开花小而少,开花迟,花色淡,果实迟熟甚至不结实。 钾(K)――蛋白质形成过程中多种酶的活化剂,增加花卉健壮与抗病性,缺钾茎秆细弱,抗病性差,易倒伏。严重时叶片枯焦皱缩。 硫(s)一辅酶A的成分,提高蛋白质水平,促进其他养分活性。缺硫叶脉失绿,植株矮小,枝条细弱。 锌(Zn)――调节糖分吸收,是花卉早期的基本营养成分。缺锌出现“小叶病”或“簇叶病”。 锰(Mn)――氮代谢酶和碳水化合物降解酶的活化剂。缺锰叶脉间失绿,一般是幼叶先失绿。 镁( Mg)――缺镁时老叶叶脉绿色;叶肉黄化,逐渐蔓延到新叶,花色变淡。 铁( Fe)――形成叶绿素的必备元素,几种酶系统的活化剂。缺铁时从新叶开始叶子变白,叶片失绿。由于硫酸亚铁施人士中后会被迅速氧化为高铁而难以吸收,故采用叶面喷施补缺效果要好得多。 钙(Ca)――缺钙时顶芽受损,根尖坏死,嫩叶失绿,不结实或少结实。 铜(Cu)――呼吸作用、种子形成、叶绿素合成及根系发育过程 酶的活化剂。缺铜症状叶片失绿,植株矮小,果实小或无果实。 硼(B)――影响水分利用,促进根系生长,帮助花的发育。缺 硼根部诱发“黑心病”嫩叶失绿,顶芽和生长点死亡,落花、落果。 钼(Mo)――氮利用过程中的必要成分。缺钼与缺氮症状基本相同。
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Miss Chen
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Miss Chen
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