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Miss Chen
07月29日
Miss Chen
Persimmons are small, bright orange fruit with an unusually vibrant flavor when ripe—when unripe they are usually very sour and almost inedible. The most common cultivated variety is the Japanese or Asian persimmon (Diospyros kaki), and China produces about 80 percent of the world's commercial persimmon crop. They are cultivated in the United States, but only in the warmest states (California, Florida, and Texas). American persimmons (Diospyros virginiana) are native to Eastern North America, and while they are not nearly as widely cultivated and not yet considered a commercial crop, they are much more cold-hardy than the larger Asian persimmons. This makes them the ideal choice for amateur enthusiasts to try planting in their yard in spring after any frost has passed. The American persimmon is the focus here. These trees are rather slow-growing and it can take seven to 10 years for them to be fruit-bearing. When ripe, the fruit has what can be described as a custard-like texture and the sweet flavor is often said to remind people of honey. This deciduous tree has blue-green leaves that turn yellow and orange in autumn.
Botanical Name Diospyros virginiana Common Name American persimmon Plant Type Deciduous tree Mature Size 35 to 50 feet Sun Exposure Full sun, afternoon shade Soil Type Tolerant of all soils except salt, loam preferred Soil pH 6.5 to 7.5 Bloom Time Late spring Flower Color White or pink Hardiness Zones 4 to 9 (USDA) Native Areas Eastern North America How to Plant Persimmon Trees Choose a site with ample sun and well-drained soil. American persimmons can grow very tall (up to 50 feet!), so make sure they have plenty of room to spread. These trees have a strong taproot that can go quite deep, so this needs to be taken into consideration—this is why persimmons won't grow well in containers. Persimmon Tree Care Light As with most fruit trees, full sun is best for growing persimmons. Some afternoon shade is all right. Be aware of shifting light patterns through the seasons, bearing in mind that persimmons ripen in late autumn. Soil Persimmons like slightly acidic and loamy soils but are adaptable to a wide range of conditions. They do not do well in salty soils. As with any fruit tree, choose a site with good drainage to prevent root rot and fungus problems. Water Once established, persimmon trees should not need extra watering, except during an exceptionally dry season. During a drought, water once weekly, deeply at the roots. They do need regular watering after being planted or transplanted. Temperature and Humidity American Persimmons are hardy to USDA zone 4, and thus can withstand harsh winter conditions and temperatures to -25F. They like some air circulation, but take care not to plant them where they will be too vulnerable to winter winds. They can also handle warm temperatures, up to Zone 9. They're not as likely to fruit in desert climates but do best in areas where deciduous trees proliferate and like a moderate amount of humidity. Fertilizer Persimmons like loamy soil but are generally happy without extra fertilizer. If your soil is not very rich, add some good soil amendments when planting your persimmon tree to give it a healthy start. American Persimmon Varieties There are a variety of persimmon cultivars available, categorized as "astringent" and "non-astringent" which affect when they can be eaten. An astringent cultivar must be soft before it can be eaten, but a non-astringent cultivar may be eaten crisp like an apple. However, all American persimmon cultivars, unlike the Asian persimmon, are classified as astringent.
The Asian persimmon has a very wide range of cultivars. When it comes to the American persimmon, because it isn't widely cultivated, there is a much more limited selection and often they will be sold under the general name with no information about the type of cultivar. If you are looking for something specific, it would be best to seek out a specialist nursery. Some of the more readily available cultivars known for large, tasty fruit include Claypool, Dollywood, and Early Golden. Harvesting Because of their pungent astringency, it is important to let American persimmons ripen fully before picking. They also continue to ripen after they are picked. It is best to allow them to become fully soft to appreciate their full sweet taste. The fruits ripen in late autumn and may remain on the tree into winter, providing a sweet treat for lucky birds and other wildlife. While the fruit looks large for a berry, that is, in fact, its morphological form (similar to a tomato). Pruning American persimmon trees should be well-pruned in the early years to give them a strong main branch structure. The fruits can grow heavy at the tips of branches when the fruit clusters mature and may break branches. Regular pruning helps keep the tree strong and healthy. In maturity, prune any dead branches. Persimmons respond well to pruning and may be pruned into hedges or even espalier forms. Common Pests & Diseases Persimmons are generally free from pests and diseases, but mealybugs or other pests associated with ants may become a problem. Treat with organic methods to protect the fruit.
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Miss Chen
07月29日
Miss Chen
香水兰在养殖时,可以将其种植在水苔中,在里面还可以添加适量的木屑和泥炭土,温度控制在15~25摄氏度之间,能够接受全天的光照,在光照过于强烈的时候,可以做好遮阴措施。养殖香水兰时需要注意,施肥应该遵循勤施稀肥,施肥的次数要勤,但是肥料必须要先稀释。
香水兰养殖的方法 养殖香水兰时,可以将其种植在水苔中,并且添加适量的木屑和泥炭土,提高土壤的透气和排水性,温度控制在15~25℃之间。香水兰能够接受全天的光照,但是在夏季光照强烈的时候,还是需要做好遮阴措施,防止叶片被灼伤。 香水兰在春秋两季浇水时,需要等到土壤以及变干后再进行浇水,浇水一定要浇透,保证水能够渗透到土壤底部,在夏季每隔2~3天浇一次水,空气干燥的时候可以对叶片喷水,在冬季每隔半个月浇一次水。
注意事项 香水兰在施肥时,应该遵循勤施稀肥的原则,由于香水兰植株细小,消耗的养分很少,一般在生长期时,每隔10~15天施加一次氮磷钾复合肥,在植株开花的时候,每隔20天施加一次稀释的磷肥水,确保香水兰能够正常开花。 香水兰属于阳性植物,但是在光照强烈的时候,还是需要做好遮阴措施,不能将其整天放置在阳光下照射。可以使用透光度为30%的遮阳布,套在植株的顶端,或者使用双层黑色地膜,将其铺在土壤表面,起到吸热反光的作用。
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Miss Chen
07月29日
Miss Chen
金边瑞香叶子发软下垂,可能是光照过于强烈导致的,此时叶片会被灼伤,水分蒸发速度较快。可能是浇水过多导致的,大量水分储存在土壤底部,会阻塞根系的气孔,影响植株的生长。可能是施肥过多导致的,大量有机质堆积在土壤底部,发生蒸腾放热的现象,引起根系灼烧。
金边瑞香叶子发软下垂的原因 金边瑞香叶子发软下垂可能是光照过于强烈导致的,由于阳光强烈,叶片会被光照灼伤,周围的温度也相对较高,植株叶片中的水分蒸发速度加快,生长过程中会严重缺水,造成叶片枯萎、变黄、发蔫。 金边瑞香叶子发软下垂可能是浇水过多导致的,由于植株根系吸收水分的能力是固定的,当浇水过多时,根系无法将水分完全吸收,会导致土壤底部出现积水的现象,根系浸泡在水中,会阻碍气孔进行呼吸作用,影响植株的生长。
金边瑞香叶子发软下垂可能是施肥过多导致的,由于植株在生长过程中,自身会通过光合作用合成有机质和葡萄糖,根系吸收土壤中的养分不会过多,当施肥过量时会导致肥害现象的发生,此时植株的根系容易被灼烧。 金边瑞香叶子发软下垂可能是光照不足导致的,由于植株正常的生长过程中,需要充足的光照,才能促进光合作用的正常进行,叶片的叶绿体才能进行正常的生命活动,叶绿素合成的含量才会增多,光照不足会导致叶片发黄、枯萎。
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Miss Chen
07月28日
Miss Chen
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Miss Chen
07月28日
Miss Chen
光叶子花在种植时,需要配制含有腐殖土、园土、沙土的混合土壤,对插穗进行修剪和消毒处理,然后插入土壤当中,保证最底部的叶片在土壤表面,填土完成后铺上一层塑料膜。保持土壤湿润,生长1个月后就能够生根,生长2年后就能够开花。
光叶子花种植的方法 在光叶子花进行种植的时候,需要选择使用含有腐殖土、园土、沙土的混合土壤,同时还可以添加晒干的塘泥和煤饼渣,增加土壤营养成分。种植的时候通常在5~6月份,天气晴朗、空气干燥的环境中进行,温度控制在10~15摄氏度之间。 种植主要采用扦插的方式完成,将从母株上剪下的枝干,用清水冲洗干净,去除表面的杂质和细菌,修剪掉两侧细软的枝干,以及多余的叶子,在伤口处涂抹上草木灰或者多菌灵溶液,然后栽种到配制好的盆土中。
在光叶子花种植的时候,插穗的埋土深度不能超过最底部的叶片高度,填好表面的土壤后,需要再铺上一层薄薄 塑料膜,起到保温保湿的作用。保证盆土相对湿润的状态,当表面土壤变干的时候,需要及时补水。 细心养护1个月后,就能够生长出根系,然后接受充足的散射光照照射,定期施加腐熟发酵的有机肥和尿素、磷酸二氢钾溶液,通常培养2年后就能够开花。光子叶花的花瓣呈长圆形、椭圆形,花色为紫色、红色。
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Miss Chen
07月27日
Miss Chen
The American elderberry (Sambucus canadensis) is a deciduous shrub that comes from North America. It is also known as the pie elder, American elder, black elderberry, elder-blow, sweet elder, or just elderberry. In late June, this fast-growing plant is covered with clusters of tiny white flowers that are followed by purplish-black fruit. The botanical name associated with this shrub is Sambucus canadensis and it is in the Adoxaceae family or Caprofoliaceae, depending on the botanist. Some consider this to be a subspecies of the common elderberry and write the name as Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis. It should be planted in the spring. Botanical Name Sambucus canadensis Common Name American Elderberry Plant Type Shrub Mature Size 10–15 feet Sun Exposure Full sun to partial shade Soil Type Rich, well-draining, loamy Soil pH Acidic Bloom Time Spring Flower Color White Hardiness Zones 3–10 Native Area North America Toxicity Toxic to people and pets; fruit is non-toxic to people once cooked American Elderberry Care American elderberry shrubs are prolific in the wild, so it's no surprise that when planted in a garden, they're easy to maintain and tolerate a wide variety of growing conditions. Once established, elderberry shrubs will be with you for the long haul.
American elderberry shrubs are 10 to 15 feet tall and wide, growing into a rounded shape. They're an excellent addition to a wildlife garden since birds love to eat the fruit. Its flowers will also attract butterflies. If you have a stream or pond on your property, elderberries can provide erosion control when planted on the banks. Although they will usually thrive even when neglected, if you're growing elderberry shrubs for fruit, you can maximize your harvest by following the guidelines outlined below. Light Elderberry shrubs need full sun exposure to partial shade. Soil The American elderberry is a good choice if you have a location that tends to be moist or wet. That said, the site should also drain well to discourage root rot. Elderberry shrubs are able to handle a pH range from acidic to alkaline, but do best in slightly acidic soil. Water Elderberries need a lot of water, but as long as the roots have had a chance to anchor themselves, the shrub can handle periods of drought. The soil around an elderberry shrub should be moist, but not waterlogged. Temperature and Humidity American elderberry shrubs' easygoing nature extends to temperature and humidity as well. While elderberries thrive in zones 3–11, they're deciduous through zone 8, and evergreen in zones 9–11, where there is no frost. Fertilizer Before planting American elderberry shrubs, turn the soil with compost. Then, fertilize annually with additional compost in the springtime. American Elderberry Varieties 'Aurea' cultivar': a shrub with yellow leaves, and red fruit instead of black 'Variegata': for foliage with variegation 'Laciniata': offers lacy dissected leaves 'Adams No. 1,' 'Adams No. 2,' 'York,' and 'Johns': produce an abundance of large drupes, and are cultivars most used if you're cooking the fruit Pruning This shrub does tend to form a lot of suckers. This can be a beneficial characteristic if you're trying to populate a native garden inexpensively, for instance, but it can be annoying otherwise. It may even become invasive in some areas. Your local garden center should know if this is the case. You can make the shrubs into a standard (small tree) form by choosing and developing a central leader. Otherwise, it is usually a multi-trunked shrub. Plan on removing dead, damaged and diseased canes (flexible branches) at the start of spring. You should also remove canes that are over three years old since younger ones produce better and this pruning will encourage new growth. Pruning can also be used to make a shrub's appearance neater, as it can become a bit lanky. Propagating American Elderberries Elderberry can be propagated by taking cuttings and rooting them. Use rooting hormone, to protect them from bacteria and fungus. Keep cuttings in a jar filled with clean water, for at least two months. Refill the water as needed, mist occasionally. Once strong roots have grown, you can plant them directly into your garden, in a well-draining area with partial shade. Elderberry can be grown from seeds but it's a tricky process. Seeds can take a couple of years to germinate, requiring something called stratification. Guidance for soaking and the need to refrigerate seeds varies, but according to the University of California, seeds can be collected from berries that have been mashed and covered in cold water for 24 hours. Skim off pulp and floating seeds, drain, and then strain and wash seeds left at the bottom of the soaking container. Dry seeds. To stratify, spread seeds on moist paper towels, and place in plastic storage bags. Refrigerate, Keep seeds moist for the 60-90 day period it takes to germinate, and check on them periodically to see if this has happened. Once germinated, plant immediately. Potting and Repotting American Elderberries Elderberries have shallow roots, making them perfect for container planting. It's best to pot in spring, in an oversized pot, at least 2 feet wide and 20 inches deep. Make sure it has drainage holes (or create your own using a drill). Use a rich potting soil, with a ph of 5.5 to 6.5. Mulch the surface with compost and water frequently so they never dry out. Common Pests/Diseases Potential problems include aphids, birds, cecropia moth caterpillars (Hyalophora cecropia), currant borers, elder shoot borer (Achatodes zeae), Eriophyid mites, fall webworms, grape mealybugs, potato flea beetles, rose chafers, San Jose scales, sap beetles, sawfly larvae, spider mites, and thrips. For all pests, remove infested shoots and canes—and destroy all prunings—and use insecticidal soap if needed.
You may see cankers, dieback, leaf spots, powdery mildew, root rots, thread blight, tomato ringspot virus and Verticillium wilt on this elderberry species. Most diseases, other than tomato ringspot virus, can be remedied by reducing overhead watering, and pruning away infected branches. Because elderberries have shallow roots, weeds can be a problem—when weeds are abundant, they can compete with the elderberry for water and nutrients. Manually remove weeds when you see them or use mulch, like hay or bark chips, as a natural weed control.
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Miss Chen
07月27日
Miss Chen
薄雪万年青应该使用浅陶瓷盆进行种植,选择含有腐叶土、园土、珍珠岩的混合土壤,先将盆土放置在阳光下暴晒消毒,确保土壤肥沃、疏松。在扦插薄雪万年青时,要将枝干剪成10厘米的长度,在分株时需要将母株分剪成大小相同的小株,消毒晾干后,再垂直栽种到土壤中,保持土壤表面湿润。
薄雪万年青要用浅盆种植 在栽种薄雪万年青时,应该选择使用陶瓷的浅盆,最好盆底拥有一个小洞,利于土壤的排水和透气作用,选择含有腐叶土、园土、珍珠岩的混合土壤,确保土壤的疏松、透气。在栽种薄雪万年青前,要将盆土都放置在阳光下暴晒消毒。
薄雪万年青的种植方法 由于薄雪万年青的叶片较小,一般都是采用扦插和分株的方式来完成种植。需要选择1年生、健康粗壮的枝干作为插穗,将其剪成10厘米的长度,剪掉枝干两侧的叶片,涂上多菌灵后,放置在通风阴凉处晾干,然后再进行栽种。 薄雪万年青在分株时,需要选择生长旺盛、没有病虫害的母株,将其从土壤中挖出,修剪掉已经损伤的枝叶,将其分剪成大小相同的小株,涂上百菌灵溶液,起到杀菌消毒的作用,然后等到晾干后再进行种植。 在插穗和小株处理完成后,将其垂直插入土壤中,保证插土的深度为枝干长度的2/3即可,然后再表面填上一层厚度为1~2厘米的细土,压实土壤后及时浇一次水,确保水能够从盆底流出,放置在阴凉的地方进行培养。
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